Possibilism is reaction to determinism and environmental determinism. It is based upon the assumption that environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. This theory says that the true and only geographical problem is that to utilisation of possibilities.
The study of human-environment relationships in mountain areas is important for both theoretical and practical reasons, as many mountain areas suffer similar problems, such as depopulation, unemployment and natural hazards. Medium mountains constitute a special case within mountains, because they are more populated but less attractive as tourist destinations than high mountains. In this context, the Apuseni Mts (Romania) are considered as a case study. In this paper, we apply GIS-based, quantitative methods to characterize the strength and dynamics of human-environment interactions, taking into consideration some environmental factors (elevation, relative height, slope, river distance, lithology, land cover, natural attractions) as well as historical population and recent tourism data. We found that population density has strong (r 2>0.8) relationships with all relief factors (elevation, relative height, slope, river distance), and that best-fit functions are nonlinear. We outlined the varying demographic scenarios by elevation zones and interpreted the historically switching sign of population change versus elevation relationship. We demonstrated that lithology also has an impact on the spatial distribution of population, although it is not independent from the relief effect. The land cover of the mainly cultural landscape is very strongly correlated with relief parameters (especially slope), which suggests good adaptation. We pointed out the dominance of karst objects in the natural tourism potential of the Apuseni Mts and also explored further components of real tourism (spas, heritage, towns). Finally, we concluded that the environmental settings investigated do in fact constrain the spatial framework of society, but socio-economic changes in history can be explained from the side of society, which conforms to the theory of cultural possibilism.
In its simplest form, possibilism is the view that an agent isobligated to perform an act just in case it is part of the best seriesof acts she can perform over the course of her life. It may be definedmore formally as follows.
According to possibilism, the act-sets that have their deontic statusdirectly (i.e., they do not have their deontic status in virtue of thedeontic status of any other act-set) are the act-sets that agents canperform over the course of their entire lives, which we will refer toas maximal act-sets (Åqvist 1969). Moreover, any non-maximalact-set has its deontic status indirectly (i.e., its deontic status isdetermined by the deontic status of a maximal act-set of which it is apart). In Professor Procrastinate, assuming thatProcrastinate cannot perform any acts after doing either \\(\\langleX\\rangle\\), \\(\\langle Y\\rangle\\), or \\(\\langle Z\\rangle\\),possibilists hold that Procrastinate is obligated to \\(\\langlea\\rangle\\) because the best maximal act-set she can perform over thecourse of her life includes \\(\\langle X\\rangle \\), and \\(\\langleX\\rangle \\)-ing requires \\(\\langle a\\rangle\\)-ing.
In contrast to possibilism, standard forms of actualism hold thatProcrastinate is obligated to decline to review the paper because whatwould actually happen if Procrastinate were to do this is better thanwhat would actually happen if she were to agree to review the paper.For, what would happen if Procrastinate were to decline the invitationis that the student would receive a second-rate job offer. However, ifshe were to agree to review the paper then she would not review it andthe student would receive no job offer. A simple, but notunproblematic, version of actualism holds the following:
Question 12.Define the important concept of Neodeterminism according to Griffith Taylor.Answer:The concept shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity (Environmental Determinism) nor is there a condition of absolute freedom (Possibilism). It means that human beings can conquer nature by obeying it. They have to respond to the red signals and can proceed in their pursuits of development when nature permits the modifications. It implies that possibilities can be created within such limits which does not damage the environment and there is no free run without accidents.
Question 2.What is the new concept of Griffith Taylor in the field of Human geography Describe this concept with examples. (CBSE 2008)Answer:The concept shows that neither there is a situation of absolute necessity nor there is a condition of absolute freedom. Humans can conquer nature by obeying them. Possibilities can be created within the limits which do not damage the environment. The new concept of Griffith Taylor in the field of Human geography reflects a middle path between two ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism.
Question 2.Explain the concept of Neo-Determinism. (Foreign 2009, A.I. 2011)Answer:Neodeterminism reflects a middle path between two ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism. It means that possibilities can be created within the limits which do not the environment. Humans can control nature by obeying them. 153554b96e